Fake news websites are also referred to as hoax news sites based on the Internet, that deliberately publish fake news, hoaxes, disinformation, and propaganda purporting to be real, by often using social media to drive web traffic and amplify their news effects. Unlike popular news satire sites, fake news websites are deliberately seek to be perceived as legitimate, and taken at face value, often for financial or political gain.
The New York Times has pointed out that within a strict definition, “fake news” on the Internet referred to a fictitious article which was fabricated with the deliberate motivation to defraud readers, generally with the goal of profiting through clickbait.
These types of unreal spoof news sites have already promoted political falsehoods in Germany, Indonesia, Philippines, Sweden, Myanmar, and the United States. They are said to be originated in, or are promoted by, mostly Russians, Macedonians, Romanians, and the United States.
While most fake news sites are portrayed to be spin-offs of other real news websites, some of these sites are examples of website spoofing, perhaps, structured to make visitors believe they’re visiting trusted news sources like CNN, or ABC News.
PolitiFact has described “fake news” as fabricated content designed to fool readers and subsequently made viral news through the Internet to crowds that increase its dissemination.
Fake, Hoax, Disinformation, Not Satire News Websites
This articles presenting a grand list of the top names in fake news websites. These web sites intentionally, but not necessarily solely publish fake, hoaxes, disinformation and spoof for purposes other than news satire.
These sites are distinguished from news satire (which are humorous) as they usually mislead, and profit from readers’ gullibility. Easily tricking or manipulating readers’ into an ill-advised course of action.
The 70 News is a WordPress-based website designed to publish all false news stories, stating that “Donald Trump” had won the popular vote in the United States presidential election 2016; the fake story rose to the top in searches for “final election results” on Google News.
This is another spoof news websites, which is owned by Paul Horner. The website mimics the URL, design and logo of popular ABC News (owned by Disney & ABC Television Group). This site is responsible for various fake, hoax, and dis-informative news stories.
The American News, published a false story claiming actor “Denzel Washington” endorsed “Donald Trump” for president election. The fictional headline of this story led to thousands of people sharing it on “Facebook”, a prominent example of fake news spreading on the social network prior to the 2016 presidential election.
Before It’s News
This is another website, that was cited by US President Donald Trump at his 2016 campaign rallies. By the Washington Post following its promotion of conspiracy theories relation to Malaysia Airlines Flight 17, the Before It’s News and Infowars were described as “unabashedly unhinged ‘news’ sites” in 2014.
The stories on this website have been mistaken as real-news then shared and cited as real-news. Its disclaimer says the stories “could be true” because “reality is so strange nowadays”. But their disclaimer also says it is “a satirical site designed to parody the 24-hour news cycle”. Its name is similar to the unrelated Indian English-language daily newspaper named Business Standard.
This website is designed to imitate trusted Bloomberg’s original site. Site now defunct, but it was used to issue a false report announcing that Twitter had received a USD $31 billion takeover offer, the false report resulted in a brief 8% stock price spike of Twitter.
The Boston Tribune
The Boston Tribune Starting in February 2016, this website’s outright disinformation, unreal spoof, hoaxes quickly became popular with its readers.
The Celebtricity has claimed: That President Obama declared a state of emergency in Chicago after more than 300 people were shot in one night. That an employee at a Wendy’s put vaginal discharge on a burger as revenge against a partner. And, Bryshere Y. Gray is Jay-Z’s son etc.
The CNN-Trending[.]com is another website that imitated the trusted news websites called CNN.com, complete with the original CNN logo. And, pushed the Hawking Code scam.
The Conservative 101 is another fake, hoax, disinformation, and not a satire news websites, falsely claimed that the White House fired Kellyanne Conway.
The Conservative Frontline is another fake, hoax, disinformation, news website owned by Jestin Coler.
The CountyNewsroom[.]info is another fake news website, registered to Tbilisi, Georgia, that makes “a minimal attempt to look official” and is used to spread malware on readers’ computers.
This fake website is another source for hoax stories, which is owned by Jestin Coler. (mimicking the popular name of the Drudge Report).
The Empire Herald
The Empire Herald Starting in January 2016, this fake news site had spread many of its hoaxes online in just a few weeks.
Many of this website’s fake news hoaxes were widely shared on social media, with stories based off social or political controversies, or were simply appalling to readers.
Empire Sports is another website that should not to be confused with the legitimate (but long-defunct) the Empire Sports Network.
Gossip Mill Mzansi
This is another fake news website targeting South African affairs. Its misinformation is spread on social media including Facebook, Twitter and other social networks.
Gummy Post, a fake news website that has published claims about President Obama issuing a full pardon for convicted rapper C-Murder, musician Kodak Black getting shot outside a nightclub in Florida, and a popular wrestler the “Hulk Hogan” death hoax.
The Last Line of Defense
The Last Line of Defense website has a history of publishing fake news articles, especially of the political genre. Notable hoaxes include Donald Trump revoking the press credentials of six major news outlets, Michelle Obama getting ditched by the Secret Service, and Hillary Clinton describing Beyonce’s music using racial slurs.
Liberty Writers News
This website was established by Paris Wade and Ben Goldman in 2015, who told the Washington Post their stories focus on “violence and chaos and aggressive wording” to attract readers. The stories reflect the positions of supporters of Donald Trump.
The Link Beef is fake news website that has published claims about the pilot of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 reappearing, a billionaire wanting to recruit 1,000 women to bear his children, and an Adam Sandler death hoax.
The Naha Daily is fake news website is now defunct, and was active in a span of five months with popular fake news articles, including a fake quote by Michael Kors.
The NationalReport was also founded by Jestin Coler told Columbia Journalism Review: “When it comes to the fake stuff, you really want it to be red meat. It doesn’t have to be offensive. It doesn’t have to be outrageous. It doesn’t have to be anything other than just giving them what they already wanted to hear.”
The Natural News, formerly it was NewsTarget, a website for the sale of various dietary supplements, promotion of alternative medicine, controversial nutrition and health claims, and various conspiracy theories, such as “chemtrails”, chemophobic claims, and purported health problems caused by allegedly “toxic” ingredients in vaccines, including the now-discredited link to autism.
This website is another fake satire news site which is owned by Paul Horner. Mimics the URL, design and logo of the trusted NBC News.
The Neonnettle fake news website “tried to connect the random deaths of doctors with conspiracy theories around vaccination” in a phony story from 2017.
News Buzz Daily
The News Buzz Daily, is another fake news website mostly consists of celebrity gossip and death hoaxes, but a few of its other stories became popular on social media.
The News Examiner was started in 2015 by Paul Horner, the lead writer of the National Report. This spoof website has been known to mix real news along with its fake news stories.
This website started in 2015 under the name NewsWatch28, later becoming NewsWatch33. The website disguises itself as a local television outlet. It has also been known to mix real news along with its fake news in an attempt to circumvent Facebook’s crackdown on them.
The New York Evening
The New York Evening, this fake news website has spread numerous false claims, including a fake story claiming that Malia Obama had been expelled from Harvard.
Now 8 News
The Now8News Started in 2015, this fake news website is also designed to look like a local television outlet. Several of the website’s fake stories have successfully spread on social media.
Prntly is a politically conservative news site described by Snopes as “a disreputable outlet that has a penchant for publishing both fake news and spurious pro-Trump articles”.
The React 365 is another user-created fake news generator, supposedly for “pranking your friends”, had at least two stories that went viral.
The Reporterz was started in early 2016, this fake news website penned several different hoaxes, including one about a murder over a Twitter trend.
This fake news website makes “claims about President Donald Trump, former President Barack Obama and Muslims, in particular, as well as click-baiting claims about porn stars and secret tricks for weight loss and whiter teeth.”
This is according to PolitiFact, “the site purposely writes outlandish stories to trick readers”. Launched on February 21, 2017, the website gained more than 1 million page views in its first two weeks; in less than a month the site was sued by Whoopi Goldberg.
This is originally registered by Jestin Coler. This fake news site’s content misleads readers and serves as ‘click bait’ to drive readers to other sites, or to share the fake news content with others on social networking websites, to generate advertising revenue.”
The YourNewsWire was founded by Sean Adl-Tabatabai and Sinclair Treadway in 2014. It has published fake stories, such as “claims that the Queen had threatened to abdicate if the UK voted against Brexit”.
Disclose TV, Daily Buzz Live, the DC Gazette, Firebrand Left, United Media Publishing, and Denver Guardian which are owned by Jestin Coler; and World News Daily Report by Janick Murray-Hall are some of the other spoof websites easily tricking or manipulating readers’ into an ill-advised course of action.
Most of these unreal news satire websites use homograph spoofing techniques, typo-squatting and other deceptive strategies, which are similar to those used in phishing attacks, to resemble genuine news outlets. These fake news sites deliberately publish hoaxes and disinformation to drive website traffic inflamed by social media.
These websites are distinguished from news satire sites (which are humorous), as they usually mislead, and profit from readers’ gullibility.
What do you think about these fake, hoax, disinformation, and unreal news sites? Please let me know, if you have noticed any other site with fake news on the web!